The objective of Action 0 is to ensure that the co-ordination and work between partners and the Commission proceeds smoothly and effectively, at administrative and technical level. The project coordinator will take the overall responsibility of this Action. The Project coordinator will also deliver a quality assurance plan & managing tools as reports to the EC.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BARRIER COMPONENTS WITH RECYCLED MATERIALS
The objective and integrated output of this action is to obtain detailed information on the recovered rubber from end-of-life tires and plastics at European level aiming at using them in the design of the new model of safety barriers. The departing point of the work to be done through the whole duration of the action will be the previous research carried out by ACCIONA and SIGNUS along the last years. The Action finished on the 30th of March 2012.
Acciona has made the analysis for determining the adequate formulation for the mat, using ELTs, recycled plastics and an organic resin with adequate elastic properties. The main conclusions obtained from them are the following:
The most adequate by-product from ELTs that can be used for elaborating the mat is the 2-4 mm. grain size.
The use of plastics increase the values of the Young Modulus. Towards the application sought in the project, such improvement can be beneficial provided that the ammount of plastic used does not produce a plastic behaviour of the mat instead of an elastic one.
The effect of plastics in the Young Modulus can be shown in picture:
From the manufacturing perspective, no problems are foreseen for the following reasons:
The dosage and mixing process can perfectly be done with conventional means (i. e., a cement mixer).
A steel mould will be designed and fabricated for adequately produce the elastomeric mat that covers the barriers.
Both pouring and compacting of the material can be done also with conventional means.
Signus, has made several theoretical and laboratory studies on rubber-concrete mixes using different types of ELTs by-products. The goal they sought after along Action 2, was to determine the adequate dosage that allow achieving adequate mechanical properties but at the same time, fulfill all the requirements for its use as a constituent material of the barriers. All this, bearing in mind the following premises:
The changes in the concrete properties when materials from ELTs are added result in a loss of mechanical properties: the coarser materials, -the higher loss. However, adding steel fibre from ELTs produces the opposite effect.
For applications of concrete that require energy absorption and certain performances derived from improved freeze-thaw cycles, replacing part of the aggregates with rubber can be beneficial.
As the minimum compressive strength required for the barriers is 35, MPa, laboratory results indicate that this reference value can be achieved by adding rubber chip (SIZE) alone, in the proportions shown in the following table:
|Chip replacement||7 - 10||% by volume|
In a first sight, it seems that at industrial level, no problems are anticipated as regards manufacturing the rubber-concrete, which can be made using the same equipment as for a conventional barrier. In economic terms, it seems that there are no major price differences between a traditional New Jersey barrier and one made from rubber-concrete.
DESIGN OF THE BARRIER WITH THE NEW MATERIALS
The objectives and integrated outputs of this action are to utilize the recycled materials to develop a number of novel, sustainable, viable and, low cost composite models of safe barriers with good environmental profiles.
Acciona, after discussing with VIA-M and CIDAUT, agreed to target a containment level H2 for Prototype N° 1. Other safety characteristics were not defined, due to the inherent limitations to foresee the behavior of the barrier under a real impact. The design followed a standard New Jersey barrier design but slightly modifying the contour in order to adequately apply the elastomeric mat all over its surface. The dimensions of the barrier will be 1m-high and 6.2m-long. In order to guarantee the design fulfilled all the decided containment level, Acciona performed several numerical simulations arriving to the design shown below.
|Tests according to EN 1317||TB 51 TB 11|
SIGNUS worked together a local barrier manufacturer because of its experience on the field. They discussed how possible it can be to achieve an adequate design taking into account the characteristics of the rubber-concrete defined by SIGNUS along Action 1. Consequently, both Signus and the manufacturer defined the following safety design goals for Prototype N° 2. Signus agreed to design 0.8 m-high and 6 m-long barriers.
|Severity Level (motorcyclist)||NI|
|Tests according to EN 1317||TB 42 TB 11|
The European Standard EN 1317 is the main regulation on Road Safety Barriers across the EU, and it has been transposed into local regulations such as the UNE-EN 1317, in Spain. It is broken down into 5 parts, being the most important for the development of the project the UNE-EN 1317-2, which describes restraint levels, severity levels and compliance tests and criteria for safety barriers, and UNE-EN 1317-5, which describes the product requirements and compliance evaluation process for road restraint systems.
The last one is critical, as from January 2011 all construction products, including safety barriers, must bear a CE mark, meaning that it is covered by, and complies with, the requirements defined on a harmonized standard. In the case of the safety barriers, the standard is the aforementioned EN 1317, from which every manufacturer shall draw up a declaration of performance according to its specifications in order to obtain the CE mark for its products.
For the reasons mentioned above, the standard UN 1317 has been used as supporting reference to the project, both for deciding the technical goals for the barriers and the adequate tests for evaluate both prototypes. Moreover, taking into account that both prototypes shall request a CE Marking foreseen a potential market implementation.
MANUFACTURING OF THE BARRIERS
The purpose of this action is to manufacture the prototype barriers and to test them through crash tests at reduced scale. Those with the best behavior against impact will be selected for the large scale tests.
The manufacturing of samples from the Prototype N°1, started on May 2013 in Accionas workshops in Madrid. Production finished on June the same year. All barriers produced will be send to CIADUT facilities for the large scale tests, as it was defined in Action 2. No reduced scale tests will be performed, as the results from the simulation showed a high probability of success of the large scale test.
On March 2014, the production of Prototype N°2 elements started. The manufacturing process followed for producing the samples, which is a conventional one that uses conventional industrial equipment for concrete precast elements, allowed to advance potential problems in the industrial production process. All this was done inside the industrial facilities of the manufacturing partner of SIGNUS. Looking forward the pendulum test, only two samples have been produced: the first with conventional concrete as standard reference, the second with rubber concrete.
|Description||Compressive strength (MPa)|
|Conventional concrete||43 MPa|
|Rubber concrete||39,6 MPa|
SIGNUS decided to perform a complementary test to the pendulum one, for which a total of nine test samples have been manufactured for determining the energy absorption capacity of the rubber concrete and compare it against the conventional concrete. The energy absorption capacity will be determine by means of 3 point bending tests. Results are expected by late October 2014.
TESTING OF THE BARRIERS AT LABORATORY SCALE
The barrier prototypes will be tested and characterized through full-scale vehicle crash test in order to fulfill the impact absorption requirements for their implementation in roads. The results of the test will allow assessing the best design for a later implementation in the demonstration road.
Large scale test for Prototype N°1 were carried out in CIDAUT facilities during between June and July 2013. The tests carried out were the following according to EN 1317-2:
The test aims to crash a 13Tn vehicle at 70 km/h. The vehicle impacts the barrier with an angle of 20° from the longitudinal axis of the barrier
The test aims to crash a 1500 kg vehicle at 110 km/h. The vehicle impacts the barrier with an angle of 20° from the longitudinal axis of the barrier
The test aims to crash a 1500 kg vehicle at 80 km/h. The vehicle impacts the barrier with an angle of 20° from the longitudinal axis of the barrier
Large scale tests for Prototype N°2 are scheduled for the 17th of October, 2014. The tests to be carried out will be the following according to EN 1317-2:
DEMONSTRATION AND VALIDATION OF THE INNOVATIVE NEW-JERSEY BARRIER
The objective and integrated output of this action is the demonstration and validation of the new barrier by its implementation in a road section in Spain.
The innovative New Jersey barrier (prototype nº2) has been implemented in a real road demonstrating the feasibility of using materials from ELT's in the field of roads safety and it opens new research lines in the field of concrete barriers.
The demostration site has been selected following the technical requirements of the barrier (containment level H1 and severity impact ASI C) and the applicable regulation ("Orden Circular 35/2014 Sobre Criterios de Aplicación de Sistemas de Contención de Vehículos").
The barrier transportation and supply have demostrated a cost reduction, and therefore the carbon footprint related with the transport of the new barrier are also reduced.
Implantation of the barriers
On the orther hand, there is not any difference concerning to mounting operations of the new barriers, since the connection system is equivalent to those used in the conventional barrier.
Placement of the stretch
UPSCALING PROCESS AND LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS
The objective of this action is to analyze the industrialization process for manufacturing the new barriers, taking into account not only the technical aspects, but also its economic feasibility and all the necessary means to industrialize the process for large-scale manufacture.
The following diagram describes the industrial process for manufacturing conventional concrete barriers. For producing the samples of the Prototype n° 2, the chips enter the process in the Dosage and Weighing phase, whose equipment is the one currently in use in the plant for manufacture precast concrete elements.
The differences in the production process when the chips are used are irrelevant, as they do not force any change or modification in the conventional industrial equipment. Actually, the rubber-concrete formulation defined in Action 1 behaved during the manufacturing process exactly the same way as in the laboratory. No problems related to the workability of the mix raised during production of the prototypes.
The rubber-concrete barrier manufacturing process has been carried out successfully in an industrial plant. Two samples were produced for the pendulum tests carried out in Action 3 and a new set of barriers is currently under production for the large scale tests (Action 4).
A cost analysis of the Prototype N° 2 has been carried out and compared with the cost structure of a conventional concrete barrier. The analysis showed that there are no considerable differences in the concepts that may influence the final price of the barrier, as the increase in materials cost is counterbalanced with a reduction in transportation cost (the weight of Prototype N°2 barriers is lower compared to a conventional barrier, which directly leads to savings in transportation costs).
AWARENESS AND DISSEMINATION
This action aims to disseminating the outcomes of the project at European, national and regional level. The action will focus on raising awareness amongst citizens and authorities spreading the results of the project, its potentials and benefits for society in general.
The dissemination plan for the New jersey Project is executed through the following means:
INNOVACARRETERA, Zaragoza (Spain). 01/07/2015.
On this event the results from the New Jersey Prject will be shown to relevant stakeholders public bodies and private companies, mainly) from the road infrastructures industry.
RUBBER SUMMIT 2015, Vilvoorde (Belgium). 19/11/2015.
The event calls prodcuers and developers of products made of recycled rubber and potential customers. It has been considered an interesting event for disseminating project results.